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The Side Effects Of Common Psychiatric Drugs: Psychostimulants

Submitted by on November 25, 2010 – 12:29 pm | 596 views

The Side Effects Of Common Psychiatric Drugs: Psychostimulants
BRAND NAMES (generic names):
1. Adderall (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine)
2. Benzedrine (amphetamine sulfate)
3. Concerta ()
4. Cylert (pemoline – removed from the market)
5. Daytrana (methylphenidate – skin patch)
6. Desoxyn (methamphetamine hydrochloride)
7.
8. Dextrostat (dextroamphetamine)
9. Equasym (methylphenidate)
10. Focalin (dexmethylphenidate)
11. Metadate (methylphenidate)
12.
13.
14. Ritalin (methylphenidate)
15. Vyvanse (lisdexamphetamine)
SIDE EFFECTS:
1. Abdominal pain
2. Aggressive or hostile behavior
3. Agitation
4. Angina (sudden acute pain)
5. Anorexia
6. Blisters or rash
7. Blood pressure and pulse changes
8. Changes in sex drive or ability
9. Changes in vision or blurred vision
10. Chest pain
11. Depression
12. Diarrhea
13. Difficulty falling asleep or
14. staying asleep
15. Dizziness or faintness
16. Drowsiness
17. Dry mouth
18. Fast, ,
19. Fever
20. Hallucinations
21. Headaches
22. Heart attack
23. Hives
24. Hypersensitivity
25.
26. Increased irritability
27. Insomnia
28. Involuntary tics and
29.
30. Itching
31. Liver problems
32. Loss of appetite
33. Mania
34. Mental/mood changes
35. Muscle or joint tightness
36. Nausea
37. Nervousness
38. Painful menstruation
39. Psychosis
40. Purple blotches under the skin
41.
42. Seizures
43. Slow or difficult speech
44. Sore throat
45. Stomach pain
46. Stroke
47. Stuffed or runny nose
48.
49. Sudden death
50. Suicidal thoughts
51. Swelling inside the nose
52. Swelling of the eyes, face, tongue, or throat
53. Tourette’s Syndrome*
54. Toxic psychosis
55. Unusual bleeding or bruising
56. Unusual sadness or crying
57. Unusual weakness or tiredness
58. Violent behavior
59. Vomiting
60. Weakness or numbness of an arm or leg
61. Weight loss
62. “Zombie” demeanor1

Suicide is a major complication of withdrawal from Ritalin and similar amphetamine-like drugs.2
Note: The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) classifies methylphenidate, the generic name for Ritalin, Concerta, Metadate and Methylin, as a Schedule II narcotic in the same abuse category as morphine, opium and cocaine.3
Methylphenidate is amphetamine-like because it is very similar in chemical structure to amphetamine and how it affects the body. The DEA says that it is structurally and pharmacologically similar to cocaine. An amphetamine’s chemical structure resembles natural stimulants in the body, like adrenaline. However, as a drug, it alters the natural system and can reduce appetite and fatigue and “speed” you up. A stimulant (psychostimulant) refers to any mind-altering chemical or substance that affects the central nervous system by speeding up the body’s functions, including the heart and breathing rates. Stimulants are
most often prescribed to children for the so-called condition Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In children, however, stimulants appear to act as suppressants, but psychiatrists and doctors have no idea why. A 1999 study published in Science Journal, determined: “The mechanism by which psychostimulants act as calming agents…is currently unknown.”4
NON-STIMULANT “ADHD” Drugs:
Celexa (citalopram), Strattera (atomoxetine) and Wellbutrin (buproprion HCL) are
all antidepressants prescribed to treat “ADHD” and are covered in the section on new
antidepressants (page 8). Strattera is the only one the FDA has approved for treating ADHD
and carries serious warnings (page 15).
GENERAL WARNINGS AND STUDIES ON PSYCHOSTIMULANTS:
June 28, 2005: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) identified possible safety concerns
with methylphenidate (Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta, etc.) drug products. Specifically
noted were psychiatric adverse effects when prescribed to treat “ADHD,” such as visual
hallucinations, suicidal ideation, psychotic behavior, aggression and violent behavior.5
September 13, 2005: The Oregon Health & Science University, Evidence-Based Practice
Center published the findings of its review of 2,287 studies—virtually every study ever
conducted on ADHD drugs—and found that no trials had shown the effectiveness of these
drugs and that there was a lack of evidence that they could affect “academic performance,
risky behaviors, social achievements, etc.” Further, “We found no evidence on long-term
safety of drugs used to treat ADHD in young children” or “adolescents.”6
January 5, 2006: The FDA said it had received reports of sudden deaths, strokes, heart
attacks and hypertension (high blood pressure) in both children and adults taking ADHD
drugs and asked its Drug Safety and Risk Management advisory committee to examine the
potential of cardiovascular (heart) risks of the drugs.7
February 4, 2006: A University of Texas study published in Pediatric Neurology reported
cardiovascular problems in children taking stimulants.8
February 9, 2006: The FDA’s Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee
urged that the FDA’s strongest “black box” warning be issued for stimulants because they
may cause heart attacks, strokes and sudden death.9
March 22-23, 2006: Two FDA advisory panels held hearings into the risk of stimulants and
another new ADHD drug called Sparlon (Provigil). Between January 2000 and June 30,
2005, the FDA had received almost 1,000 reports of kids experiencing psychosis or mania
while taking the drugs. The first panel recommended stronger warnings against stimulants,
emphasizing these should appear on special handouts called “Med Guides” (Medication
Guides) that doctors must give to patients with each prescription. The second committee
recommended against approval of Sparlon.10
March 28, 2006: The Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration reported 400 adverse
reactions to stimulants in children taking them, including strokes, heart attacks and
hallucinations.11
December 2007: A study in the journal Pediatrics concluded: “[S]timulants were associated
with an increase in cardiac emergency department visits.”12
February 2008: A study in Arthritis & Rheumatism, entitled, “Association between
treatment with central nervous system [CNS] stimulants and Raynaud’s Syndrome [RS*]
in children: a retrospective case-control study of rheumatology [disorder of the muscles,
tendons, joints, bones, or nerves, characterized by discomfort and disability] patients,”
concluded: “[T]here is a significant association between development of RS and therapy
with CNS stimulants used for the treatment of ADHD.”13 [*RS: Discoloration of the fingers
and/or toes after changes in temperature or emotional events due to abnormal spasms of the
blood vessels resulting in lost blood supply to the area.]
Abuse of Stimulants:
The FDA requires stimulants such as Ritalin and Adderall to carry a boxed warning that
states the drug is “a federally controlled substance because it can be abused or lead to
dependence. Keep RITALIN [Adderall] in a safe place to prevent misuse and abuse.”
August 2001: A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association
concluded that methylphenidate is chemically similar to cocaine.14 Children who took
stimulants were more likely to start smoking or use cocaine and continue these habits into
adulthood.15
April 2005: Partnership for a Drug-Free America released the findings of its survey, which
determined that 10% (2.3 million) of teens had abused Ritalin and Adderall.16
February 25, 2006: A study in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence revealed that
seven million Americans were estimated to have abused stimulant drugs and a substantial
amount of teenagers and young adults appeared to show signs of addiction.17
WARNINGS AND STUDIES ON SPECIFIC PSYCHOSTIMULANTS:
ADDERALL (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine):
Adderall is an amphetamine mixture that has been linked to violent behavior when, in
1999, a North Dakota judge acquitted 24-year-old Ray Ehlis of murdering his 5-week-old
daughter after two independent psychiatrists testified he was suffering a severe psychosis
induced by Adderall.18
June 2004: The FDA ordered that the packaging for Adderall include a warning about
sudden cardiovascular deaths, especially in children with underlying heart disease.19
February 9, 2005: Health Canada, the Canadian counterpart of the FDA, suspended
marketing of Adderall XR (Extended Release, given once a day) due to reports of 20
sudden unexplained deaths (14 in children) and 12 strokes (2 in children) in patients taking
Adderall or Adderall XR. However, in August 2005, Health Canada agreed to reinstate the
marketing authorization with a number of revisions to the labeling to warn against the use
of Adderall XR in patients with structural heart abnormalities and advised about the dangers
of misusing amphetamines.20 The FDA warned that as Adderall is an amphetamine, it has a
“high potential for abuse. Taking amphetamines for long periods of time may lead to drug
addiction.” Further, Adderall should never be taken in conjunction with antidepressants in
the (MAOI) Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor class.21 (See page 17)
CYLERT (pemoline):
September 1997: Britain removed Cylert from the market after reports of death related
to liver toxicity in people taking it. Cylert posed a threat of serious liver complications,
including liver failure resulting in death or liver transplantation.22
September 1999: Canada removed Cylert from the market after reports of death related to
liver toxicity in people taking it.23
October 24, 2005: The FDA finally withdrew Cylert from the market because of its
“overall risk of liver toxicity” and liver failure.24
METADATE CD (methylphenidate):
Metadate is a reformulation of Ritalin for extended delivery over several hours and carries
the same warnings as Ritalin and potential for abuse. Metadate should not be taken if:
“You have significant anxiety, tension, or agitation since METADATE CD may make
these conditions worse…you have glaucoma, an eye disease, you have tics or Tourette’s
Syndrome (condition manifesting in involuntary physical and vocal tics.)”11
Provigil (modafinil):
Provigil was approved to treat daytime sedation as a means to keep people awake. Its
manufacturer, Cephalon, unsuccessfully attempted to get FDA approval for the drug’s use
in treatment of ADHD under the trade name Sparlon. However, this does not mean that
psychiatrists or physicians will not prescribe Provigil for ADHD, even though it is not FDA
approved for this use or for any pediatric use.
September 2007: Cephalon sent a letter to health care professionals informing them of new
warnings: “1. Provigil can cause life-threatening skin and other serious hypersensitivity
reactions…. 2. Provigil is not approved for use in pediatric patients for any indication. 3.
Provigil can cause psychiatric symptoms.”25
RITALIN (methylphenidate):
The Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR) warns, “psychotic episodes can occur” with abuse.
Suicide is the major complication of withdrawal from Ritalin and similar drugs.26
The DEA says Ritalin could lead to addiction and that “psychotic episodes, violent behavior
and bizarre mannerisms have been reported” with its use.27
October 17, 2007: In Japan, the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry panel (similar to
the FDA) removed Ritalin from its list of approved medicines to treat depression. It was
considered that it could exacerbate the already significant amount of Ritalin abuse in the
country.28
2008: The current FDA Medication Guide warns of heart-related problems with Ritalin and
other stimulants, including, “sudden death in patients who have heart problems or heart
defects; stroke and heart attack in adults; increased blood pressure and heart rate.” Further,
for all patients, “new or worse behavior and thought problems…new or worse aggressive
behavior or hostility” and in children and teens, “new psychotic symptoms (such as hearing
voices, believing things that are not true, are suspicious) or new manic symptoms.”29
*Tourettes’s Syndrome: a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent involuntary movements,
including multiple neck jerks and sometimes vocal tics, as grunts, barks, or words, esp. obscenities.
References
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Vol 92, Mar. 99 “letters to the editor” p. 156. Medline Plus, www.nim.nih.gov/medlineplus: Millichap, J.Gordon “Methylphenidate
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3 “Drug Scheduling,” U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration Online, Internet URL: http://www.dea.gov.
4 Raul R. Gainetdinov; William C. Wetsel; Edward D. Sara; R. Levin Jones; Mohamed Jaber; Marc G. Caron, “Role of Serotonin in the
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5 “Statement on Concerta and Methylphenidate,” Statement posted on the FDA website, 28 June 2005.
6 Marian S. MacDonagh, PharmaD, and Kim Peterson, MS, “Drug Class Review on Pharmacologic Treatment for ADHD: Final
Report,” Oregon Health and Science University, Sept. 2005, pp. 13-20.
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9 Ricardo Alonso-Zaldivar, “Warning Urged for ADHD Drugs,” Los Angeles Times, 10 Feb. 2006.
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Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” Pediatrics, Vol. 120, Dec. 2007, pp. e1494-e1501.
13 W. Goldman, et al., “Association between treatment with central nervous system stimulants and Raynaud’s Syndrome in children: a
study of rheumatology patients,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, Vol. 58, No. l, 2 Feb. 2008, pp. 563-566.
14 Brian Vastig, “Pay Attention: Ritalin Acts Much Like Cocaine,” JAMA, 22/29 Aug. 2001, Vol. 286, No. 8, p. 905.
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18 Brian Witte, “Slaying blamed on reaction to hyperactivity drug,” Associated Press, 25 Oct. 1999.
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20 “Health Canada Suspends Marketing of Adderall,” FDA Alert, 9 Feb. 2005.
21 “Health Canada allows Adderall XR® back on the Canadian market,” Health Canada News Release, 24 Aug. 2005.
22 Partnership Attitude Tracking Study, Teens – 2004, Partnership for a Drug-Free America, 21 Apr. 2005, p. 7; “Cylert recall
demanded over safety concerns,” Lifestyle News, www.mynippon.com/news/2005/03/cylert-recall-demanded-over-safety-concerns.
23 “Injured by Cylert?” Parker Waichman Alonso, LLP, http://www.yourlawyer.com/topics/overview/cylert.
24 “FDA Withdraws Approval for ADD Drug,” Associated Press, 24 Oct. 2005.
25 “Updated Safety Information: Warnings regarding serious rash, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and hypersensitivity reactions,
and psychiatric symptoms,” Cephalon, Inc., Sept. 2007.
26 Op. cit., DSM-III-R, pp. 136, 175.; Medical Economics Company, Physicians Desk Reference (Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics
Co, 1998), pp. 1,897.
27 “Methylphenidate (A Background Paper),” U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, Oct. 1995, p. 16.
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29 Ritalin Drug Label, fda.gov.
30 Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com; Joseph Glenmullen, M.D. Prozac Backlash, (Simon & Schuster, New York,
2000), p. 8; “Antidepressants Lift Clouds, But Lost ‘Miracle Drug’ Label,” The New York Times, 30 June 2002; Alice Park, “More
Drugs To Treat Hyperactivity,” TIME Magazine, 10 Sept. 2001; Wellbutrin/Bupropion, Prozac Truth website; “Teen Suffers Seizure
After Snorting Antidepressant,” HealthScoutNews Reporter, 23 Apr. 2003.
31 Dr. Candace B. Pert, Letter to the Editor, TIME Magazine, 20 Oct. 1997, p. 8.
32 “Worsening Depression and Suicidality in Patients Being Treated with Antidepressant Medication,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 22
Mar. 2004.
33 Gardiner Harris, “Antidepressant Study Seen to Back Expert,” The New York Times, 20 Aug. 2004.
34 “Antidepressant aggression concern,” BBC News Online, 21 Sept. 2004.
35 “Suicidality in Children and Adolescents Being Treated With Antidepressant Medications,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 15 Oct. 2004.
36 “New advice on prescribing anti-depressants,” New Zealand Ministry of Health Media Release, 21 Oct. 2004.
37 “Use of SSRI antidepressants in children and adolescents,” Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 6, Dec. 2004.
38 “European Medicines Agency finalises review of antidepressants in children and adolescents,” European Medicines Agency Press
Release, 25 Apr. 2005.
39 Sarah Boseley, “Suicide fear from antidepressants,” The Guardian (London), 18 Feb. 2005.
40 Joanna Moncrieff and Irving Kirsch, “Efficacy of Antidepressants in Adults,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 331, 16 July 2005, pp.
155-157; Salynn Boyles, “Battle Brews Over Antidepressant Use,” Fox News, 15 Jul. 2005.
41 “Suicidality with SSRIs: adults and children,” Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Bulletin, Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 2005.
42 “Annex II,” Commission Decision of 19-VIII-2005, Commission of the European Communities, 19 Aug. 2005.
43 Ivar Aursnes, et al., “Suicide Attempts in Clinical Trials with Paroxetine Randomised Against Placebo,” BMC Medicine, Vol. 3, pp.
14-18.
44 Sheryl Ubelacker, “SSRI antidepressants may raise suicide risk in elderly patients: study,” Sympatico, 1 May 2006.
45 “Antidepressants should list new risks: FDA,” Reuters, 19 July 2006; “Combined Use of 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor Agonists (Triptans), Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) or Selective Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) May
Result in Life-threatening Serotonin Syndrome,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 19 July 2006.
46 “FDA Proposes New Warnings About Suicidal Thinking, Behavior in Young Adults Who Take Antidepressants,” FDA News, 2 May 2007.
47 “Antidepressants and suicidal thoughts and behaviour,” Pharmacovigilance Working Party, Jan. 2008.
48 Yan Chen, et al., “Risk of Cerebrovascular Events [CVE] Associated with Antidepressant Use in Patients with Depression: A
Population-Bases, Nested Case-Control Study,” The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 177-184, 22 Jan. 2008.
49 “Implementation of warnings on suicidal thoughts and behaviour in antidepressants,” MHRA, 5 February 2008.
50 Irving Kirsch, et al., “Initial Severity and Antidepressant Benefits: A Meta-Analysis of Data Submitted to the Food and Drug
Administration,” Public Library of Science, Vol. 5, Iss. 2, 26 Feb. 2008.
51 “Antidepressant drug use and risk of venous thromboembolism,” Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 28, No. 2, 28 Feb. 2008.
52 Thomas Laughren, M.D., Letter to GlaxoSmithKline Attn: Randal L. Batenhorst, Food and Drug Administration, Jan. 2009.
53 Benedict Carey, “Treatment of Depression in Pregnancy Affects Babies,” The New York Times, 4 Feb. 2005.
54 “General information concerning use of SSRI antidepressants in pregnant women,” Therapeutic Goods Administration, 7 Sept. 2005.
55 “Paroxetine HCL – Paxil and generic paroxetine,” 2005 Safety Alerts for Drugs, Biologics, Medical Devices, and Dietary
Supplements, FDA MedWatch, 27 Sept. 2005.
56 Steve Mitchell, “Analysis: SSRIs’ risk to infants,” United Press International, 6 Feb. 2006.
57 “Advisory – Newer antidepressants linked to serious lung disorder in newborns,” Health Canada press release, 10 Mar. 2006.
58 Maria Bishop, “Use of Antidepressants in Pregnancy Affects Neonatal Outcomes: Presented at AACAP,” Doctor’s Guide, 29 Oct.
2007.
59 “Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft and Other SSRI Antidepressants Tied to Premature Birth,” News Inferno, 6 May 2008.
60 “Duloxetine hydrochloride (marketed as Cymbalta) information,” FDA information sheet, 30 June 2005.
61 “Cymbalta (duloxetine hydrochloride),” 2005 Safety Alerts for Drugs, Biologics, Medical Devices, and Dietary Supplements, FDA
MedWatch, 17 Oct. 2005.
62 “NDA # 21-733. CYMBALTA® (duloxetine hydrochloride) Delayed-release Capsules. MACMIS # 14550,” FDA, 2 Oct. 2007.
63 “Paroxetine,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 8 Dec. 2005.
64 Benedict Carey and Gardiner Harris, “Antidepressant May Raise Suicide Risk,” The New York Times, 12 May 2006.
65 Corrado Barbui, M.D., et al., “Effectiveness of paroxetine in the treatment of acute major depression in adults: a systematic reexamination
of published and unpublished data from randomized trials,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, Vol. 178, No. 3, 29
Jan. 2008.
66 “New Warning for Strattera,” FDA Talk Paper, 17 Dec. 2004.
67 “Attention Drug to Get New Warning,” Los Angeles Times, 18 Dec. 2004.
68 “Strattera to Get New Risk Label,” The Washington Post, 18 Dec. 2004.
69 “New Drugs in Pipeline,” Psychiatric News, 21 Dec. 2001.
70 “Lilly to add suicide warning to Strattera,” ABC News, 29 Sept. 2005.
71 “Atomoxetine and suicidal behavior: update,” Canadian Adverse Reaction Newsletter, Vol. 18, Iss. 3, July 2008.
72 “Atomoxetine: risk of psychotic or manic symptoms,” Drug Safety Update, MHRA, Vol. 2, Iss. 8, March 2009.
73 “Teen Suffers Seizure After Snorting Antidepressant,” HealthScoutNews Reporter, 23 Apr., 2003.
74 Op. cit., Prozac Truth website.
75 Alice Park, “More Drugs To Treat Hyperactivity,” TIME Magazine, 10 Sept. 2001.
76 Op. cit., Prozac Truth website.
77HealthScoutNews Reporter.
78 Op. cit. Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com.
79 “Suicidality in Children and Adolescents Being Treated With Antidepressant Medications,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 15 Oct.
2004.
80 Op cit.New Zealand Ministry of Health.
81 Italian Official Gazette, No. 224, 26 Sept. 2005.
82 “Depression in Children and Young People,” National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Sept. 2005, pp. 16, 18 and 28.
83 FDA, “Antidepressant Use in Children, Adolescents, and Adults,” www.fda.gov/CDER/Drug/antidepressants?default.html, updated
2 May 2007.
84 Op. Cit.Maria Bishop.
85 “Antidepressant drug use and risk of venous thromboembolism,” Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 28, No. 2, 28 Feb. 2008.
86 Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com; “ABILIFY Rx Only (aripiprazole) Tablets,” Package Insert, revised Mar.
2004; “GENERIC NAME: Aripiprazole BRAND NAME: Abilify,” Internet URL: http://www.MedicineNet.com, Last Editorial
Review: 9/8/04; “Aripiprazole Brand Name: Abilify,” Internet URL: http://www.HealthyPlace.com, Ty C. Colbert, Rape of the Soul,
How the Chemical Imbalance Model of Modern Psychiatry has Failed its Patients, (Kevco Publishing, California, 2001), p. 106.
87 Robert Whitaker, Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill, (Perseus
Publishing, New York, 2002), pp. 182, 186.
88 Op. cit., Robert Whitaker, p. 208.
89 George Crane, “Tardive Dyskinesia in Patients Treated with Major Neuroleptics: A Review of the Literature,” American Journal of
Psychiatry, Vol. 124, Supplement, 1968, pp. 40-47.
90 Michael J. Burns, “The Pharmacology and Toxicology of Atypical Antipsychotic Agents,” Journal of Toxicology, 1 Jan. 2001.
91 Ibid.
92 “FDA: Antipsychotic Drugs, Diabetes Linked,” Associated Press Online, 18 Sept. 2003.
93 “Atypical antipsychotics and hyperglycaemia,” Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 3, June 2004.
94 Jeffrey A. Lieberman, M.D., et al., “Effectiveness of Antipsychotic Drugs in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 353, No. 12, 22 Sept. 2005.
95 Philip S. Wang, et al., “Risk of Death in Elderly Users of Conventional vs. Atypical Antipsychotic Medication,” The New England
Journal of Medicine, Vol. 353, No. 22, 1 Dec. 2005.
96 Marilyn Elias, “New antipsychotic drugs carry risks for children; Side effects can lead to bigger health problems,” USA Today, 2
May 2006.
97 Peter Tyrer, et al., “Risperidone, haloperidol, and placebo in the treatment of aggressive challenging behaviour in patients with
intellectual disability: a randomized controlled trial,” The Lancet, Vol. 371, 5 Jan. 2008.
98 Wilma Knol, M.D., et al., “Antipsychotic Drug Use and Risk of Pneumonia in Elderly People,” The American Geriatrics Society, Vol.
56, No. 4, pp. 661-666, Apr. 2008.80
99 Hugo Lovheim, M.D., Stig Karlsoon, R.N., Ph.D., et al., “The use of central nervous system drugs and analgesics among very old
people with and without dementia,” Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 9 Apr. 2008.
100 Paula A. Rochon, M.D., MPH, FRCPC, et al., “Antipsychotic Therapy and Short-term Serious Events in Older Adults With
Dementia,” The Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 168, No. 10, 26 May 2008.
101 “Information for Healthcare Professionals Antipsychotics,” FDA, June 2008; “US FDA expands antipsychotic drug warning,”
Reuters UK, 17 June 2008.
102 “Update on the safety of antipsychotic medicines – risk of stroke and increased risk of mortality in elderly patients treated for
dementia,” Drug Safety Newsletter, Iss. 30, Apr. 2009, p. 5.
103 MedicineNet.com, Last Editorial Review: 9/8/04.
104 “Abilify Information,” Pharma-Help.com.
105 “The New Anti-Psychotic Drug Aripiprazole (ABILIFY),” Public Citizen’s eLetter, Apr. 2003.
106 Op. cit., “ABILIFY Rx Only (aripiprazole) Tablets,”
107 “Clozapine and Achy Breaky Hearts,” MedSafe, May 2008.
108 Watching Briefs, MedSafe, June 2008.
109 “Information for Healthcare Professionals Haloperidol (marketed as Haldol, Haldol Decanoate and Haldol Lactate),” FDA ALERT,
17 Sept. 2007.
110 Jeff Swiatek, “Uncertainty was Driver in Zyprexa Deal,” IndianapolisStar.com, 11 June 2005.
111 Op. cit., Jeffrey A. Lieberman, M.D., et al.
112 “Study: New drugs little better for schizophrenia,” St. Petersburg Times, 20 Sept. 2005.
113 “Important Safety Information about ZYPREXA® (olanzapine),” Eli Lilly and Company, 5 Oct. 2007; “Lilly Announces Updates
to the Zyprexa and Symbyax U.S. Labels,” PRNewswire, Bio-Medicine, 5 Oct. 2007.
114 ZYPREXA Safety Information, www.zyprexa.com.
115 Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com.
116 Tracey McVeigh, “Tranquilizers ‘more lethal than heroin,’” The Observer, 5 Nov. 2000.
117 Matt Clark, Mary Hager, “Valium Abuse: The Yellow Peril,” Newsweek, 24 Sept. 1979; Dr. Patrick Holford, “How to Quit
Tranquilizers,” www.patrickholdford.com, 2008.
118 Ibid.
119 Op. cit., Tracey McVeigh.
120 “Elderly On Long-Acting Anxiety, Insomnia Drugs Have More Car Crashes,” Doctor’s Guide citing Journal of American Medical
Association, 30 June 1997.
121 “Agression, Violence & Bezodiazapines,” Benzo.org.uk, citing British National Formulary, 2001.
122 Benzo.org.uk, citing Professor C. Heather Ashton, Benzodiazepines: How They Work and How To Withdraw, Feb. 2001.
123 “The Influence on the Pharmaceutical Industry,” House of Commons, UK, Health Committee, Vol. 1, Mar. 2005. p. 65.
124 Tarja-Brita R. Wahlin, et al., “Falls and fall risk among nursing home residents,” The Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 17, pp. 126-
134, Jan. 2008.
125 “Europe-wide review recommends updates to product information for varenicline (brand name Champix),” MHRA, 14 Dec. 2008.
126 “Early Communication About an Ongoing Safety Review Varenicline (marketed as Chantix),” FDA, 20 Nov. 2007.
127 “Varenicline (marketed as Chantix) Information,” FDA Alert, 1 Feb. 2008.
128 Op. cit., House of Commons, UK, Health Committee, p. 65.
129 Anna Maria Dademan, “Flunitrazepam and violence—psychiatric and legal issues,” Department of Clinical Neuroscience,
Occupational Therapy and Elderly Care, Research Division of Forensic Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Sweden, 2000, p. 43.
130 “Zolpidem (‘Stilnox’) – Updated information – February 2008,” Theraputic Goods Administration, 21 Feb. 2008; “Club Drugs: An
Update,” Drug Intelligence Brief, Drug Enforcement Administration, Sept. 2001.
131 “FDA Safety Changes: Ambien, Primazin IM/IV, Hepsera,” Medscape, 28 Aug. 2008.
132 Peter Breggin, Toxic Psychiatry, (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1991) p. 245.
133 Jerrold F. Rosenbaum, et al., “Emergence of Hostility During Alprazolam Treatment in Borderline Personality Disorder,” The
American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 141, No. 6 (June 1984), pp. 792-793.
134 David L. Gardner and Rex W. Cowdrey, “Alprazolam-Induced Dyscontrol in Borderline Personality Disorder,” The American
Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 142, No. 1 (Jan. 1985), pp. 98-100.
135 “Xanax addiction extremely tough to kick,” MSNBC News Online, 2001.
136 Statement by Joseph A. Califano, Jr., Chairman and President, “Under the Counter: The Diversion and Abuse of Controlled
Prescription Drugs in the U.S.” The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, July 2005.
137 Physicians’ Desk Reference, (Medical Economics Company, New Jersey, 1998), pp. 2822-2823; David L. Richman, M.D., Leonard
Roy Frank, and Art Mandler, Dr. Caligari’s Psychiatric Drugs (Alonzo Printing Co., Inc., California, 1984), p. 39.
138 Op. cit., David L. Richman, M.D., et al., pp. 38-39.
139 Ibid.

Source: http://www.cchrint.org/pdfs/The_Side_Effects_of_Common_Psychiatric_Drugs.pdf

A previous article entitled Social Problems: Alcohol & Other Drugs provides information... Alcohol, dependency ve NHTSA

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