Headline »

January 31, 2017 – 1:38 pm | 1,757 views

What Works For Anxiety Disorders–Anti-Anxiety Drugs

Short-term use (up to four weeks)
Our rating
Long-term use
Our rating



Social Phobia
Social Phobia

Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia

Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia

Specific Phobias
Specific Phobias


Anti-anxiety drugs are used mainly for …

Read the full story »

Antidepressant Drugs »»» Celexa (citalopram) Luvox (fluvoxamine) Paxil (paroxetine) Prozac (fluoxetine) Zoloft (sertraline)


Antipsychotic Drugs »»» Moban Risperdal (risperidone) Seroquel (quetiapine) Stelazine Zyprexa (olanzapine)

Antimanic Agents

Mood Stabalizers »»» Depakene Depakote sprinkles Lamictal (lamatrogine) Lithium (lithium carbonate) Eskalith Lithobid


Antianxiety Drugs »»» Ativan (lorazepam) BuSpar (buspirone) Klonopin (clonazepam) Valium (diazepam) Xanax (alprazolam)

Anti-Epileptic Drugs

Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are the main form of treatment for people with epilepsy. There are around 26 AEDs used to treat seizures.

Home » Featured, Psychiatric Disorders, Schizophrenia

Facts about Schizophrenia

Submitted by on September 8, 2016 – 10:53 am | 519 views

Some Quick Facts about Schizophrenia

  • Approximately one percent of the population suffer from schizophrenia.
  • 10 to 15 percent of those affected by the illness take their own lives, usually within the first ten years of developing the disorder.
  • Typically strikes young people when they are maturing into adulthood.
  • The true cause of schizophrenia is widely debated but the leading multiple convergent factors include:  , Gene Expression, Viruses, , , Birth Injury, and .
  • Most schizophrenics are unemployed; the governmental and family costs each year are enormous.

The Etiology of Schizophrenia

  • “Schizophrenia is a disease of the brain that is expressed clinically as a disease of the mind.  It is a disease of neural connectivity caused by multiple factors that affect .
  • Despite a hundred years of research, the neuropathology of schizophrenia remains obscure.  In general, the relationship between neurochemical findings (which focus on dopamine, 5-HT, glutamate and GABA systems) and the neuropathology of schizophrenia is unclear.
  • A final common pathway defines the illness:  schizophrenia is a misregulation of information processing in the brain.

Positive Symptoms

  • Delusions
  • Hallucinations
  • Bizarre Behaviors
  • Dissociated or fragmented thoughts
  • Incoherence and Illogicallity

Negative Symptoms

  •  Blunted Affect
  • Impaired emotional responsiveness
  • Apathy
  • Loss of motivation and interest
  • Social Withdrawal

The differentiation of symptoms is important in the psychopharmacology of antipsychotic drugs because the classic agents affect primarily the positive symptoms, while the atypical relieve both the positive and negative symptoms.

Dopaminergic Involvement

  • In the 1970’s, scientific evidence favored a .
  • Dopamine Theory:  the disorder arises from the dysregulation in certain brain regions of the dopamine system, and antipsychotic drugs work by being pharmacological antagonists of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
  • The traditional view of antipsychotic drug activity involves antagonism of D2 receptors, some drugs blocking D2 receptors and some blocking D4.
  • Traditional antipsychotics which block D2 receptors have been found to cause acute drug-induced Parkinson symptoms, persistent and sometimes permanent residual motor dysfunction, and may even worsen negative symptoms.
  • Atypical antipsychotics are also D2 antagonists but usually have a second action; perhaps D1, , or adrenergic blockade.
  • D2 receptor blockade is thought to be associated with the abovementioned side effects but there is still a strong correlation between D2 blockade and clinical efficacy and potency.

Serotonin Involvement

  • The exact serotonin mechanisms involved have been very elusive.
  • The serotonin psychedelic drugs and LSD produce a state similar to schizophrenia and these drugs are thought to be agonists of 5-HT receptors.  5-HT antagonism may be beneficial in antipsychotic efficacy.
  • Serotoninergic activity may be a complementary action to dopaminergic blockade, reducing negative symptoms and blocking the production of abnormal drug-induced motor problems.  This has been found to be true of many atypical antipsychotics that are capable of blocking 5-HT2 receptors.

Glutamate Involvement

  • Olney and Farber found NMDA receptor hypofunction can cause psychosis in humans and corticolimbic neurodegenerative changes in the rat brain; changes that could in fact be prevented by certain atypical neuroleptic agents like and olanzipine.
  • Therefore there is a glutamate-NMDA receptor hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia that is proposed to result in excessive release of excitatory neurotransmitters (glutamate and acetylcholine) in the frontal cortex, damaging cortical neurons and triggering the deterioration seen in patients with schizophrenia.
  • Mohn and colleagues developed genetically engineered mice in which NMDA receptors were reduced by 95 percent.  The mice exhibited behaviors remarkably similar to schizophrenia, unrelated to dopaminergic dysfunction and sensitive to antipsychotic drugs.

Source: http://wings.buffalo.edu/aru/P402chpt17.doc


A previous article entitled Antianxiety Drugs provides information... Abstinence syndromes, abuse potential ve addiction

Related posts

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,