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The Side Effects Of Common Psychiatric Drugs: Older Antidepressants

Submitted by on November 27, 2010 – 6:48 pm | 874 views

(Including Tricyclics, Tetracyclics and MAOIs)

Brand Names (Generic Names):


Adapin (doxepin)

Anafranil (clomipramine)

Asendin (amoxapine)

Aventyl (nortriptyline)

Elavil (amitriptyline)

Endep (amitriptyline)

Etrafon (amitriptyline

Janimine (imipramine)

Maneon (amitriptyline)

Norpramin (desipramine hydrochloride)

Nortilen (nortriptyline)

Pamelor (nortriptyline)

Pertofrane (norpramin)

Saroten (amitriptyline)

Sinequan (doxepin hydrochloride)

SK-Pramine Oral (imipramine)

Surmontil (trimipramine maleate)

Tofranil (imipramine hydrochloride)

Triavil (amitriptyline hydrochloride

and perphenazine)


Triptil (protriptyline)

Tryptizol (amitriptyline)

Tryptanol (amitriptyline)

Vivactil (protriptyline hydrochloride)


Avanza (mirtazapine)

Ludiomil (maprotiline hydrochloride)

Remergil (mirtazapine)

Remeron (mirtazapine)

Tolvon (mianserin hydrochloride)

Zispin (mirtazapine)


Aurorix (moclobemide)

Emsam (selegiline – skin patch)

Manerix (moclobemide)

Marplan (isocarboxazid)

Nardil (phenelzine sulfate)

Parnate (tranylcypramine sulfate)

Side Effects:


Black tongue

Blurred vision

Breast enlargement in men and women

Changes in appetite or weight


Cold, clammy skin




Crushing chest pain

Decreased memory or concentration





Difficulty breathing or swallowing

Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep

Difficulty thinking



Dry mouth

Excessive sweating

Excitement or anxiety

Extreme restlessness

Eye pain

more sensitive to light than usual


Fast, irregular, or pounding heartbeat

, fever, chills, sore , or other signs of infection



Frequent, painful, or difficult urination


Hair loss





Jaw, neck, and back muscle spasms



Liver problems

Lowered white blood cell count (with risks of infection)

Manic reactions

Muscle pain or weakness


Neck stiffness or soreness



Numbness, burning, or tingling

Panic feelings

Ringing in the ears



Severe headache

Severe muscle stiffness


Shuffling walk

Slow or difficult speech

Stomach pain or cramps


Stuffy nose

Sudden, severe nausea and vomiting


Swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, , feet, ankles, or lower legs

Tightness in the chest or throat


Uncontrollable shaking of any part of the body


Unusual bleeding or bruising

Unusual movements that are difficult to control

Unusual taste in the mouth

Unusual tiredness or weakness

Weakness or tiredness

Widened pupils (black circles in the middle of the eyes)

Yellowing of the skin or eyes78


Tricyclics: (TCAs) were introduced in the late 1950s/early 60s and the name refers to the three rings in the chemical structure of the drugs.

Tetracyclics: The name derives from the drug’s molecular structure that consists of fourring- like structures in a T-shape.

MAOIs: Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs). Monoamine Oxidase is an enzyme that has the function of getting rid of used neurotransmitters found in the gap between nerve cells. It was theorized (not proved) that too low concentrations of neurotransmitters may cause depression and MAOIs blocked the activity of this enzyme, resulting in higher levels of neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, which are all “monoamines” meaning they have a single amino acid – a compound used to form proteins that are essential for function and structure of cells in the body.)


October 15, 2004: The FDA ordered pharmaceutical companies to add a “black box” warning to all antidepressants, saying the drugs could cause suicidal thoughts and actions in children and teenagers.79

October 21, 2004: The New Zealand Medicines Adverse Reactions Committee recommended that old and new antidepressants not be administered to patients less than 18 years of age because of the potential risk of suicide.80

September 26, 2005: The Italian Gazette (official news agency of the Italian government) published a resolution of the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco (Italian Drug Agency, equivalent to the FDA) ordering a warning label for older antidepressants stating that the drugs should not be prescribed for under 18 year olds. They also determined that they were associated with heart attacks in people of any age. 81

September 28, 2005: The British National Health Service’s Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence warned that “all antidepressant drugs have significant risks when given to children and young people.” 82

May 2, 2007: The FDA told makers of all antidepressants to update the existing black box warning on their products’ labeling to include warnings about increased risks of suicidal thinking and behavior, known as suicidality, in young adults ages 18 to 24 during initial treatment.83

October 2007: A study released at the 54th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry found that babies born to mothers who take antidepressant medication during pregnancy have high levels of cortisol (a hormone that helps regulate blood pressure) in umbilical cord-blood at birth, and their mothers are more likely to experience delivery complications. When examined at 2 weeks of age, the infants of women taking antidepressants were more excitable than infants born to women not taking antidepressants. 84

February 28, 2009: Pharmacotherapy published a study on “Antidepressant drug use and risk of venous thromboembolism [blockage of a blood vessel due to a clot],” which concluded, “Current exposure to amitriptyline [antidepressant], particularly at high does, was associated with an increased risk of idiopathic [of unknown cause] venous thromboembolism.”


1 Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com; “Adderall,” DrugStore.com, Internet URL: http://www.drugstore.com;

“Study Suggests Focalin (TM) LA Capsules (d-MPH-ER) Are Safe and Effective for ADHD in Adults,” PR Newswire, 5 May 2004;

A.D.D. Warehouse website; ADHDHelp, Internet URL: http://www.adhdhelp.org/metadate.htm. Journal of the Royal Society of Med.,

Vol 92, Mar. 99 “letters to the editor” p. 156. Medline Plus, www.nim.nih.gov/medlineplus: Millichap, J.Gordon “Methylphenidate

Role in Tourettes Syndrome Prevalence.

2 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R), American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C., 1987, p. 136.

3 “Drug Scheduling,” U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration Online, Internet URL: http://www.dea.gov.

4 Raul R. Gainetdinov; William C. Wetsel; Edward D. Sara; R. Levin Jones; Mohamed Jaber; Marc G. Caron, “Role of Serotonin in the

Paradoxical Calming Effect of Psychostimulants on Hyperactivity,” Science, 15 Jan. 1999.

5 “Statement on Concerta and Methylphenidate,” Statement posted on the FDA website, 28 June 2005.

6 Marian S. MacDonagh, PharmaD, and Kim Peterson, MS, “Drug Class Review on Pharmacologic Treatment for ADHD: Final

Report,” Oregon Health and Science University, Sept. 2005, pp. 13-20.

7 “FDA will study safety of attention-deficit drugs,” Kansas City Star, 5 Jan. 2006.

8 “Stimulants in children with ADHD may have negative CV effect,” Mental Health Law Weekly, 4 Feb. 2006.

9 Ricardo Alonso-Zaldivar, “Warning Urged for ADHD Drugs,” Los Angeles Times, 10 Feb. 2006.

10 Todd Zwillich, “FDA Panel Recommends Warnings of Rare Reports of Aggressive Behavior or Psychotic Symptoms,” WebMD, 23

Mar. 2006.

11 “Dark side of a wonder drug,” The Australian, 28 Mar. 2006.

12 Almut G. Winterstein, et al., “Cardiac Safety of Central Nervous System Stimulants in Children and Adolescents With Attention-

Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” Pediatrics, Vol. 120, Dec. 2007, pp. e1494-e1501.

13 W. Goldman, et al., “Association between treatment with central nervous system stimulants and Raynaud’s Syndrome in children: a

study of rheumatology patients,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, Vol. 58, No. l, 2 Feb. 2008, pp. 563-566.

14 Brian Vastig, “Pay Attention: Ritalin Acts Much Like Cocaine,” JAMA, 22/29 Aug. 2001, Vol. 286, No. 8, p. 905.

15 Joel Turtel, Public Schools, Public Menace: How Public Schools Lie to Parents and Betray Our Children, (Library Books, New

York), 2004-2005, p. 135.

16 “Partnership Attitude Tracking Study” of teens in 2004, 17th Annual report by Partnership for a Drug-Free America, 21 Apr. 2005;

“Survey: 1 in 5 teens getting high on medications, over-counter drugs,” NewsItem.com, 2 May 2005.

17 Larry A. Kroutil, et al., “Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants in the United States,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Feb. 2006.

18 Brian Witte, “Slaying blamed on reaction to hyperactivity drug,” Associated Press, 25 Oct. 1999.

19 “J & J Psychiatric Safety Labeling, Cardiovascular Events Are Topic For Cmte,” FDAAdvisoryCommittee.com, June 2005.

20 “Health Canada Suspends Marketing of Adderall,” FDA Alert, 9 Feb. 2005.

21 “Health Canada allows Adderall XR® back on the Canadian market,” Health Canada News Release, 24 Aug. 2005.

22 Partnership Attitude Tracking Study, Teens – 2004, Partnership for a Drug-Free America, 21 Apr. 2005, p. 7; “Cylert recall

demanded over safety concerns,” Lifestyle News, www.mynippon.com/news/2005/03/cylert-recall-demanded-over-safety-concerns.

23 “Injured by Cylert?” Parker Waichman Alonso, LLP, http://www.yourlawyer.com/topics/overview/cylert.

24 “FDA Withdraws Approval for ADD Drug,” Associated Press, 24 Oct. 2005.

25 “Updated Safety Information: Warnings regarding serious rash, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and hypersensitivity reactions,

and psychiatric symptoms,” Cephalon, Inc., Sept. 2007.

26 Op. cit., DSM-III-R, pp. 136, 175.; Medical Economics Company, Physicians Desk Reference (Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics

Co, 1998), pp. 1,897.

27 “Methylphenidate (A Background Paper),” U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, Oct. 1995, p. 16.

28 “Antidepressant Ritalin to be delisted because of abuse,” Daily Yomiuri Online, 19 Oct. 2007.

29 Ritalin Drug Label, fda.gov.

30 Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com; Joseph Glenmullen, M.D. Prozac Backlash, (Simon & Schuster, New York,

2000), p. 8; “Antidepressants Lift Clouds, But Lost ‘Miracle Drug’ Label,” The New York Times, 30 June 2002; Alice Park, “More

Drugs To Treat Hyperactivity,” TIME Magazine, 10 Sept. 2001; Wellbutrin/Bupropion, Prozac Truth website; “Teen Suffers Seizure

After Snorting Antidepressant,” HealthScoutNews Reporter, 23 Apr. 2003.

31 Dr. Candace B. Pert, Letter to the Editor, TIME Magazine, 20 Oct. 1997, p. 8.

32 “Worsening Depression and Suicidality in Patients Being Treated with Antidepressant Medication,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 22

Mar. 2004.

33 Gardiner Harris, “Antidepressant Study Seen to Back Expert,” The New York Times, 20 Aug. 2004.

34 “Antidepressant aggression concern,” BBC News Online, 21 Sept. 2004.

35 “Suicidality in Children and Adolescents Being Treated With Antidepressant Medications,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 15 Oct. 2004.

36 “New advice on prescribing anti-depressants,” New Zealand Ministry of Health Media Release, 21 Oct. 2004.

37 “Use of SSRI antidepressants in children and adolescents,” Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 6, Dec. 2004.

38 “European Medicines Agency finalises review of antidepressants in children and adolescents,” European Medicines Agency Press

Release, 25 Apr. 2005.

39 Sarah Boseley, “Suicide fear from antidepressants,” The Guardian (London), 18 Feb. 2005.

40 Joanna Moncrieff and Irving Kirsch, “Efficacy of Antidepressants in Adults,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 331, 16 July 2005, pp.

155-157; Salynn Boyles, “Battle Brews Over Antidepressant Use,” Fox News, 15 Jul. 2005.

41 “Suicidality with SSRIs: adults and children,” Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Bulletin, Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 2005.

42 “Annex II,” Commission Decision of 19-VIII-2005, Commission of the European Communities, 19 Aug. 2005.

43 Ivar Aursnes, et al., “Suicide Attempts in Clinical Trials with Paroxetine Randomised Against Placebo,” BMC Medicine, Vol. 3, pp.


44 Sheryl Ubelacker, “SSRI antidepressants may raise suicide risk in elderly patients: study,” Sympatico, 1 May 2006.

45 “Antidepressants should list new risks: FDA,” Reuters, 19 July 2006; “Combined Use of 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor Agonists (Triptans), Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) or Selective Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) May

Result in Life-threatening Serotonin Syndrome,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 19 July 2006.

46 “FDA Proposes New Warnings About Suicidal Thinking, Behavior in Young Adults Who Take Antidepressants,” FDA News, 2 May 2007.

47 “Antidepressants and suicidal thoughts and behaviour,” Pharmacovigilance Working Party, Jan. 2008.

48 Yan Chen, et al., “Risk of Cerebrovascular Events [CVE] Associated with Antidepressant Use in Patients with Depression: A

Population-Bases, Nested Case-Control Study,” The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 177-184, 22 Jan. 2008.

49 “Implementation of warnings on suicidal thoughts and behaviour in antidepressants,” MHRA, 5 February 2008.

50 Irving Kirsch, et al., “Initial Severity and Antidepressant Benefits: A Meta-Analysis of Data Submitted to the Food and Drug

Administration,” Public Library of Science, Vol. 5, Iss. 2, 26 Feb. 2008.

51 “Antidepressant drug use and risk of venous thromboembolism,” Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 28, No. 2, 28 Feb. 2008.

52 Thomas Laughren, M.D., Letter to GlaxoSmithKline Attn: Randal L. Batenhorst, Food and Drug Administration, Jan. 2009.

53 Benedict Carey, “Treatment of Depression in Pregnancy Affects Babies,” The New York Times, 4 Feb. 2005.

54 “General information concerning use of SSRI antidepressants in pregnant women,” Therapeutic Goods Administration, 7 Sept. 2005.

55 “Paroxetine HCL – Paxil and generic paroxetine,” 2005 Safety Alerts for Drugs, Biologics, Medical Devices, and Dietary

Supplements, FDA MedWatch, 27 Sept. 2005.

56 Steve Mitchell, “Analysis: SSRIs’ risk to infants,” United Press International, 6 Feb. 2006.

57 “Advisory – Newer antidepressants linked to serious lung disorder in newborns,” Health Canada press release, 10 Mar. 2006.

58 Maria Bishop, “Use of Antidepressants in Pregnancy Affects Neonatal Outcomes: Presented at AACAP,” Doctor’s Guide, 29 Oct.


59 “Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft and Other SSRI Antidepressants Tied to Premature Birth,” News Inferno, 6 May 2008.

60 “Duloxetine hydrochloride (marketed as Cymbalta) information,” FDA information sheet, 30 June 2005.

61 “Cymbalta (duloxetine hydrochloride),” 2005 Safety Alerts for Drugs, Biologics, Medical Devices, and Dietary Supplements, FDA

MedWatch, 17 Oct. 2005.

62 “NDA # 21-733. CYMBALTA® (duloxetine hydrochloride) Delayed-release Capsules. MACMIS # 14550,” FDA, 2 Oct. 2007.

63 “Paroxetine,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 8 Dec. 2005.

64 Benedict Carey and Gardiner Harris, “Antidepressant May Raise Suicide Risk,” The New York Times, 12 May 2006.

65 Corrado Barbui, M.D., et al., “Effectiveness of paroxetine in the treatment of acute major depression in adults: a systematic reexamination

of published and unpublished data from randomized trials,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, Vol. 178, No. 3, 29

Jan. 2008.

66 “New Warning for Strattera,” FDA Talk Paper, 17 Dec. 2004.

67 “Attention Drug to Get New Warning,” Los Angeles Times, 18 Dec. 2004.

68 “Strattera to Get New Risk Label,” The Washington Post, 18 Dec. 2004.

69 “New Drugs in Pipeline,” Psychiatric News, 21 Dec. 2001.

70 “Lilly to add suicide warning to Strattera,” ABC News, 29 Sept. 2005.

71 “Atomoxetine and suicidal behavior: update,” Canadian Adverse Reaction Newsletter, Vol. 18, Iss. 3, July 2008.

72 “Atomoxetine: risk of psychotic or manic symptoms,” Drug Safety Update, MHRA, Vol. 2, Iss. 8, March 2009.

73 “Teen Suffers Seizure After Snorting Antidepressant,” HealthScoutNews Reporter, 23 Apr., 2003.

74 Op. cit., Prozac Truth website.

75 Alice Park, “More Drugs To Treat Hyperactivity,” TIME Magazine, 10 Sept. 2001.

76 Op. cit., Prozac Truth website.

77HealthScoutNews Reporter.

78 Op. cit. Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com.

79 “Suicidality in Children and Adolescents Being Treated With Antidepressant Medications,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 15 Oct.


80 Op cit.New Zealand Ministry of Health.

81 Italian Official Gazette, No. 224, 26 Sept. 2005.

82 “Depression in Children and Young People,” National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Sept. 2005, pp. 16, 18 and 28.

83 FDA, “Antidepressant Use in Children, Adolescents, and Adults,” www.fda.gov/CDER/Drug/antidepressants?default.html, updated

2 May 2007.

84 Op. Cit.Maria Bishop.

85 “Antidepressant drug use and risk of venous thromboembolism,” Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 28, No. 2, 28 Feb. 2008.

86 Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com; “ABILIFY Rx Only (aripiprazole) Tablets,” Package Insert, revised Mar.

2004; “GENERIC NAME: Aripiprazole BRAND NAME: Abilify,” Internet URL: http://www.MedicineNet.com, Last Editorial

Review: 9/8/04; “Aripiprazole Brand Name: Abilify,” Internet URL: http://www.HealthyPlace.com, Ty C. Colbert, Rape of the Soul,

How the Chemical Imbalance Model of Modern Psychiatry has Failed its Patients, (Kevco Publishing, California, 2001), p. 106.

87 Robert Whitaker, Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill, (Perseus

Publishing, New York, 2002), pp. 182, 186.

88 Op. cit., Robert Whitaker, p. 208.

89 George Crane, “Tardive Dyskinesia in Patients Treated with Major Neuroleptics: A Review of the Literature,” American Journal of

Psychiatry, Vol. 124, Supplement, 1968, pp. 40-47.

90 Michael J. Burns, “The Pharmacology and Toxicology of Atypical Antipsychotic Agents,” Journal of Toxicology, 1 Jan. 2001.

91 Ibid.

92 “FDA: Antipsychotic Drugs, Diabetes Linked,” Associated Press Online, 18 Sept. 2003.

93 “Atypical antipsychotics and hyperglycaemia,” Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 3, June 2004.

94 Jeffrey A. Lieberman, M.D., et al., “Effectiveness of Antipsychotic Drugs in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 353, No. 12, 22 Sept. 2005.

95 Philip S. Wang, et al., “Risk of Death in Elderly Users of Conventional vs. Atypical Antipsychotic Medication,” The New England

Journal of Medicine, Vol. 353, No. 22, 1 Dec. 2005.

96 Marilyn Elias, “New antipsychotic drugs carry risks for children; Side effects can lead to bigger health problems,” USA Today, 2

May 2006.

97 Peter Tyrer, et al., “Risperidone, haloperidol, and placebo in the treatment of aggressive challenging behaviour in patients with

intellectual disability: a randomized controlled trial,” The Lancet, Vol. 371, 5 Jan. 2008.

98 Wilma Knol, M.D., et al., “Antipsychotic Drug Use and Risk of Pneumonia in Elderly People,” The American Geriatrics Society, Vol.

56, No. 4, pp. 661-666, Apr. 2008.80

99 Hugo Lovheim, M.D., Stig Karlsoon, R.N., Ph.D., et al., “The use of central nervous system drugs and analgesics among very old

people with and without dementia,” Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 9 Apr. 2008.

100 Paula A. Rochon, M.D., MPH, FRCPC, et al., “Antipsychotic Therapy and Short-term Serious Events in Older Adults With

Dementia,” The Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 168, No. 10, 26 May 2008.

101 “Information for Healthcare Professionals Antipsychotics,” FDA, June 2008; “US FDA expands antipsychotic drug warning,”

Reuters UK, 17 June 2008.

102 “Update on the safety of antipsychotic medicines – risk of stroke and increased risk of mortality in elderly patients treated for

dementia,” Drug Safety Newsletter, Iss. 30, Apr. 2009, p. 5.

103 MedicineNet.com, Last Editorial Review: 9/8/04.

104 “Abilify Information,” Pharma-Help.com.

105 “The New Anti-Psychotic Drug Aripiprazole (ABILIFY),” Public Citizen’s eLetter, Apr. 2003.

106 Op. cit., “ABILIFY Rx Only (aripiprazole) Tablets,”

107 “Clozapine and Achy Breaky Hearts,” MedSafe, May 2008.

108 Watching Briefs, MedSafe, June 2008.

109 “Information for Healthcare Professionals Haloperidol (marketed as Haldol, Haldol Decanoate and Haldol Lactate),” FDA ALERT,

17 Sept. 2007.

110 Jeff Swiatek, “Uncertainty was Driver in Zyprexa Deal,” IndianapolisStar.com, 11 June 2005.

111 Op. cit., Jeffrey A. Lieberman, M.D., et al.

112 “Study: New drugs little better for schizophrenia,” St. Petersburg Times, 20 Sept. 2005.

113 “Important Safety Information about ZYPREXA® (olanzapine),” Eli Lilly and Company, 5 Oct. 2007; “Lilly Announces Updates

to the Zyprexa and Symbyax U.S. Labels,” PRNewswire, Bio-Medicine, 5 Oct. 2007.

114 ZYPREXA Safety Information, www.zyprexa.com.

115 Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com.

116 Tracey McVeigh, “Tranquilizers ‘more lethal than heroin,’” The Observer, 5 Nov. 2000.

117 Matt Clark, Mary Hager, “Valium Abuse: The Yellow Peril,” Newsweek, 24 Sept. 1979; Dr. Patrick Holford, “How to Quit

Tranquilizers,” www.patrickholdford.com, 2008.

118 Ibid.

119 Op. cit., Tracey McVeigh.

120 “Elderly On Long-Acting Anxiety, Insomnia Drugs Have More Car Crashes,” Doctor’s Guide citing Journal of American Medical

Association, 30 June 1997.

121 “Agression, Violence & Bezodiazapines,” Benzo.org.uk, citing British National Formulary, 2001.

122 Benzo.org.uk, citing Professor C. Heather Ashton, Benzodiazepines: How They Work and How To Withdraw, Feb. 2001.

123 “The Influence on the Pharmaceutical Industry,” House of Commons, UK, Health Committee, Vol. 1, Mar. 2005. p. 65.

124 Tarja-Brita R. Wahlin, et al., “Falls and fall risk among nursing home residents,” The Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 17, pp. 126-

134, Jan. 2008.

125 “Europe-wide review recommends updates to product information for varenicline (brand name Champix),” MHRA, 14 Dec. 2008.

126 “Early Communication About an Ongoing Safety Review Varenicline (marketed as Chantix),” FDA, 20 Nov. 2007.

127 “Varenicline (marketed as Chantix) Information,” FDA Alert, 1 Feb. 2008.

128 Op. cit., House of Commons, UK, Health Committee, p. 65.

129 Anna Maria Dademan, “Flunitrazepam and violence—psychiatric and legal issues,” Department of Clinical Neuroscience,

Occupational Therapy and Elderly Care, Research Division of Forensic Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Sweden, 2000, p. 43.

130 “Zolpidem (‘Stilnox’) – Updated information – February 2008,” Theraputic Goods Administration, 21 Feb. 2008; “Club Drugs: An

Update,” Drug Intelligence Brief, Drug Enforcement Administration, Sept. 2001.

131 “FDA Safety Changes: Ambien, Primazin IM/IV, Hepsera,” Medscape, 28 Aug. 2008.

132 Peter Breggin, Toxic Psychiatry, (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1991) p. 245.

133 Jerrold F. Rosenbaum, et al., “Emergence of Hostility During Alprazolam Treatment in Borderline Personality Disorder,” The

American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 141, No. 6 (June 1984), pp. 792-793.

134 David L. Gardner and Rex W. Cowdrey, “Alprazolam-Induced Dyscontrol in Borderline Personality Disorder,” The American

Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 142, No. 1 (Jan. 1985), pp. 98-100.

135 “Xanax addiction extremely tough to kick,” MSNBC News Online, 2001.

136 Statement by Joseph A. Califano, Jr., Chairman and President, “Under the Counter: The Diversion and Abuse of Controlled

Prescription Drugs in the U.S.” The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, July 2005.

137 Physicians’ Desk Reference, (Medical Economics Company, New Jersey, 1998), pp. 2822-2823; David L. Richman, M.D., Leonard

Roy Frank, and Art Mandler, Dr. Caligari’s Psychiatric Drugs (Alonzo Printing Co., Inc., California, 1984), p. 39.

138 Op. cit., David L. Richman, M.D., et al., pp. 38-39.

139 Ibid.

Source: http://www.cchrint.org/pdfs/The_Side_Effects_of_Common_Psychiatric_Drugs.pdf

A previous article entitled The Side Effects Of Common Psychiatric Drugs: Newer Antidepressants provides information... Abnormal bleeding or bruising, Abnormal thoughts ve agitation

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