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The Side Effects Of Common Psychiatric Drugs: Older Antidepressants

Submitted by on November 27, 2010 – 6:48 pm | 768 views

The Side Effects Of Common Psychiatric Drugs: Older Antidepressants

(Including Tricyclics, Tetracyclics and MAOIs)

Brand Names (Generic Names):

Tricyclics

Adapin (doxepin)

Anafranil (clomipramine)

Asendin (amoxapine)

Aventyl (nortriptyline)

Elavil (amitriptyline)

Endep (amitriptyline)

Etrafon (amitriptyline and perphenazine)

Janimine ()

Maneon (amitriptyline)

Norpramin (desipramine hydrochloride)

Nortilen (nortriptyline)

Pamelor (nortriptyline)

Pertofrane (norpramin)

Saroten (amitriptyline)

Sinequan (doxepin hydrochloride)

SK-Pramine Oral (imipramine)

Surmontil (trimipramine maleate)

Tofranil (imipramine hydrochloride)

Triavil (amitriptyline hydrochloride

and perphenazine)

Triptazine (amitriptyline)

Triptil (protriptyline)

Tryptizol (amitriptyline)

Tryptanol (amitriptyline)

Vivactil (protriptyline hydrochloride)

Tetracyclics

Avanza (mirtazapine)

Ludiomil (maprotiline hydrochloride)

Remergil (mirtazapine)

Remeron (mirtazapine)

Tolvon (mianserin hydrochloride)

Zispin (mirtazapine)

MAOIs

Aurorix (moclobemide)

Emsam (selegiline – skin patch)

Manerix (moclobemide)

Marplan (isocarboxazid)

sulfate)

Parnate (tranylcypramine sulfate)

Side Effects:

Anxiousness

Black tongue

Blurred vision

Breast enlargement in men and women

Changes in appetite or weight

Changes in sex drive or ability

Cold, clammy skin

Coma

Confusion

Constipation

Crushing chest pain

concentration

Delirium

Depression

Difficulty breathing or swallowing

Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep

Difficulty thinking

Dizziness

Drowsiness

Dry mouth

Excessive sweating

Excitement or anxiety

Extreme restlessness

Eye pain

Eyes more sensitive to light than usual

Fainting

Fast, irregular, or pounding heartbeat

Flu-like symptoms, fever, chills, sore throat, or other signs of infection

Flushing

Forgetfulness

Frequent, painful, or difficult urination

Hair loss

Hallucinations

Hives

Hyperactivity

Itching

Jaw, neck, and back muscle spasms

Lethargy

Lightheadedness

Liver problems

Lowered white blood cell count (with risks of infection)

Manic reactions

Muscle pain or weakness

Muscle twitching or jerking

Nausea

Neck stiffness or soreness

Nightmares

Numbness, burning,

Panic feelings

Ringing in the ears

Sedation

Seizures

Severe headache

Severe muscle stiffness

Shakiness

Shuffling walk

Slow or difficult speech

Stomach pain or cramps

Stroke

Stuffy nose

Sudden, severe nausea and vomiting

Sweating

Swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs

Tightness in the chest or throat

Tiredness

Uncontrollable shaking of any part of the body

Unsteadiness

Unusual bleeding or bruising

Unusual movements that are difficult to control

Unusual taste in the mouth

Unusual tiredness or weakness

Weakness or tiredness

Widened pupils (black circles in the middle of the eyes)

Yellowing of the skin or eyes78

EXPLANATORY NOTE:

Tricyclics: (TCAs) were introduced in the late 1950s/early 60s and the name refers to the three rings in the chemical structure of the drugs.

Tetracyclics: The name derives from the drug’s molecular structure that consists of fourring- like structures in a T-shape.

MAOIs: Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs). Monoamine Oxidase is an enzyme that has the function of getting rid of used neurotransmitters found in the gap between nerve cells. It was theorized (not proved) that too low concentrations of neurotransmitters may cause depression and MAOIs blocked the activity of this enzyme, resulting in higher levels of neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, which are all “monoamines” meaning they have a single amino acid – a compound used to form proteins that are essential for function and structure of cells in the body.)

GENERAL WARNINGS AND STUDIES ON OLDER ANTIDEPRESSANTS:

October 15, 2004: The FDA ordered pharmaceutical companies to add a “black box” warning to all antidepressants, saying the drugs could cause suicidal thoughts and actions in children and teenagers.79

October 21, 2004: The New Zealand Medicines Adverse Reactions Committee recommended that old and new antidepressants not be administered to patients less than 18 years of age because of the potential risk of suicide.80

September 26, 2005: The Italian Gazette (official news agency of the Italian government) published a resolution of the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco (Italian Drug Agency, equivalent to the FDA) ordering a warning label for older antidepressants stating that the drugs should not be prescribed for under 18 year olds. They also determined that they were associated with heart attacks in people of any age. 81

September 28, 2005: The British National Health Service’s Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence warned that “all antidepressant drugs have significant risks when given to children and young people.” 82

May 2, 2007: The FDA told makers of all antidepressants to update the existing black box warning on their products’ labeling to include warnings about increased risks of suicidal thinking and behavior, known as suicidality, in young adults ages 18 to 24 during initial treatment.83

October 2007: A study released at the 54th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry found that babies born to mothers who take antidepressant medication during pregnancy have high levels of cortisol (a hormone that helps regulate blood pressure) in umbilical cord-blood at birth, and their mothers are more likely to experience delivery complications. When examined at 2 weeks of age, the infants of women taking antidepressants were more excitable than infants born to women not taking antidepressants. 84

February 28, 2009: Pharmacotherapy published a study on “Antidepressant drug use and risk of venous thromboembolism [blockage of a blood vessel due to a clot],” which concluded, “Current exposure to amitriptyline [antidepressant], particularly at high does, was associated with an increased risk of idiopathic [of unknown cause] venous thromboembolism.”

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91 Ibid.

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106 Op. cit., “ABILIFY Rx Only (aripiprazole) Tablets,”

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108 Watching Briefs, MedSafe, June 2008.

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110 Jeff Swiatek, “Uncertainty was Driver in Zyprexa Deal,” IndianapolisStar.com, 11 June 2005.

111 Op. cit., Jeffrey A. Lieberman, M.D., et al.

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115 Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com.

116 Tracey McVeigh, “Tranquilizers ‘more lethal than heroin,’” The Observer, 5 Nov. 2000.

117 Matt Clark, Mary Hager, “Valium Abuse: The Yellow Peril,” Newsweek, 24 Sept. 1979; Dr. Patrick Holford, “How to Quit

Tranquilizers,” www.patrickholdford.com, 2008.

118 Ibid.

119 Op. cit., Tracey McVeigh.

120 “Elderly On Long-Acting Anxiety, Insomnia Drugs Have More Car Crashes,” Doctor’s Guide citing Journal of American Medical

Association, 30 June 1997.

121 “Agression, Violence & Bezodiazapines,” Benzo.org.uk, citing British National Formulary, 2001.

122 Benzo.org.uk, citing Professor C. Heather Ashton, Benzodiazepines: How They Work and How To Withdraw, Feb. 2001.

123 “The Influence on the Pharmaceutical Industry,” House of Commons, UK, Health Committee, Vol. 1, Mar. 2005. p. 65.

124 Tarja-Brita R. Wahlin, et al., “Falls and fall risk among nursing home residents,” The Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 17, pp. 126-

134, Jan. 2008.

125 “Europe-wide review recommends updates to product information for varenicline (brand name Champix),” MHRA, 14 Dec. 2008.

126 “Early Communication About an Ongoing Safety Review Varenicline (marketed as Chantix),” FDA, 20 Nov. 2007.

127 “Varenicline (marketed as Chantix) Information,” FDA Alert, 1 Feb. 2008.

128 Op. cit., House of Commons, UK, Health Committee, p. 65.

129 Anna Maria Dademan, “Flunitrazepam and violence—psychiatric and legal issues,” Department of Clinical Neuroscience,

Occupational Therapy and Elderly Care, Research Division of Forensic Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Sweden, 2000, p. 43.

130 “Zolpidem (‘Stilnox’) – Updated information – February 2008,” Theraputic Goods Administration, 21 Feb. 2008; “Club Drugs: An

Update,” Drug Intelligence Brief, Drug Enforcement Administration, Sept. 2001.

131 “FDA Safety Changes: Ambien, Primazin IM/IV, Hepsera,” Medscape, 28 Aug. 2008.

132 Peter Breggin, Toxic Psychiatry, (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1991) p. 245.

133 Jerrold F. Rosenbaum, et al., “Emergence of Hostility During Alprazolam Treatment in Borderline Personality Disorder,” The

American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 141, No. 6 (June 1984), pp. 792-793.

134 David L. Gardner and Rex W. Cowdrey, “Alprazolam-Induced Dyscontrol in Borderline Personality Disorder,” The American

Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 142, No. 1 (Jan. 1985), pp. 98-100.

135 “Xanax addiction extremely tough to kick,” MSNBC News Online, 2001.

136 Statement by Joseph A. Califano, Jr., Chairman and President, “Under the Counter: The Diversion and Abuse of Controlled

Prescription Drugs in the U.S.” The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, July 2005.

137 Physicians’ Desk Reference, (Medical Economics Company, New Jersey, 1998), pp. 2822-2823; David L. Richman, M.D., Leonard

Roy Frank, and Art Mandler, Dr. Caligari’s Psychiatric Drugs (Alonzo Printing Co., Inc., California, 1984), p. 39.

138 Op. cit., David L. Richman, M.D., et al., pp. 38-39.

139 Ibid.

Source: http://www.cchrint.org/pdfs/The_Side_Effects_of_Common_Psychiatric_Drugs.pdf

A previous article entitled The Side Effects Of Common Psychiatric Drugs: Newer Antidepressants provides information... Abnormal bleeding or bruising, Abnormal thoughts ve agitation

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