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What Works For Anxiety Disorders–Anti-Anxiety Drugs

Short-term use (up to four weeks)
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The Side Effects Of Common Psychiatric Drugs: Anti-Anxiety Drugs

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The Side Effects Of Common Psychiatric Drugs: Anti-Anxiety Drugs

(Called Minor Tranquilizers, Benzodiazepines or Sedative Hypnotics)

Brand Names (Generic Names):

Ambien (zolpidem)

Ativan (lorazepam)

Azene (clorazepate)

BuSpar (buspirone)

Centrax (

Champix (varenicline – in the UK)

Chantix (varenicline – in the U.S.)

Dalmane (flurazepam)

Doral (quazepam)

Equanil (meprobamate)

Halcion (triazolam)

Klonopin (clonazepam)

Lexomil (bromazepam)

Lexotan (bromazepam)

Lexotanil (bromazepam)

Librax (chlordiazepoxide and flidinium)

Libritabs (chlordiazepoxide)

Librium (chlordiazepoxide)

Lunesta (eszopiclone)

Miltown (meprobamate)

Niravam (alprazolam)

Paxipam (halazepam)

Placidyl (ethchlorvynol)

Prosom (estazolam)

Reapam (prazepam)

Restoril (temazepam)

Rivotril (clonazepam)

Rohypnol (flunitrazepam)

Rozerem (ramelteon)

Serax (ozazepam)

Serepax (oxazepam)

Serestra (oxazepam)

Sonata (zaleplon)

Stesolid (diazepam)

Stilnox (zolpidem)

Temesta (lorazepam)

Tranxene (clorazepate)

Valium (diazepam)

Versed (midazolam)

Verstran (prazepam)

Vistaril (hydroxyzine)

Xanax (alprazolam)

Side Effects:

Acute hyperexcited states

Aggressive behavior


Agranulocytosis (condition affecting white blood cells causing susceptibility to infection)




Blurred vision

Changes in sex drive or ability

Chest pain



Difficulty urinating


Dizziness or lightheadedness


Dry mouth

Epileptic seizures and death have resulted from suddenly stopping

Fast or irregular heartbeat


Feeling that the throat is closing


Frequent urination


Hangover effect (grogginess)





Increased salivation




Jaw, neck, and back muscle spasms


Liver problems

Memory impairment

Muscle tremors





Problems with coordination




Severe depression

Severe skin rash

Sexual problems

Shuffling walk

Sleep disturbances

Slow or difficult speech

Slurred speech

Stomach pain

Suicide attempt

Swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue,



Transient amnesia


Unusual movements of the head or neck muscles

Upset stomach


Weight changes115

General Warnings And Studies On Anti-Anxiety Drugs:

Daily use of therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines is associated with physical dependence.

Addiction can occur after 14 days of regular use.116 The withdrawal from drugs like Valium

“is more prolonged and often more difficult than [withdrawal from] heroin,” Dr. Conway

Hunter, Jr. of Atlanta’s Peachford Hospital stated in 1979. In 2008, Dr. Patrick Holford

from the UK wrote “How To Quit Tranquilizers” and said, withdrawal and tolerance to

benzodiazepines “describe an addiction that can be as difficult as heroin to break.”117

The typical consequences of withdrawal are anxiety, depression, sweating, cramps,

nausea, psychotic reactions and seizures. There is also a “rebound effect” where the

individual experiences even worse symptoms than they started with as a result of chemical


1990-1996: Benzodiazepines caused 1,810 deaths in Britain, making them more lethal

than heroin, cocaine and methadone, which combined accounted for 1,623 deaths.119

1997: A study in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) found that

elderly people taking benzodiazepines for anxiety or insomnia were at increased risk for

motor vehicle crashes. Brenda Hemmelgarn, M.N., Samy Suissa, Ph.D., and colleagues

from McGill University and Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, studied 224,734

drivers aged 67 to 84 years and determined a 45% increased rate of motor vehicle crashes

involving injuries for elderly patients during the first seven days of taking a long-acting

form of benzodiazepine.120

2001: A British study reported an “increase in hostility and aggression may be reported by

patients taking benzodiazepines. The effects range from talkativeness and excitement to

aggressive and antisocial acts.”121

February 2001: British professor C. Heather Ashton reported cases of babybattering,

wife-beating and “grandmother-bashing” could be attributed to people taking


March 2005: The UK government’s House of Commons (Parliament) Health Committee

released findings of its inquiry into benzodiazepines and reported the side effects “are

now known to include excessive sedation, decreased attention, amnesia and sometimes

intractable dependence. Abrupt cessation can lead to severe withdrawal symptoms,

including convulsions in some patients. Short-term treatment and a long tapering period is

now recommended to limit these risks.”123

January 2008: The Journal of Clinical Nursing published an article entitled, “Falls and

Fall Risk Among Nursing Home Residents,” that concluded, “A higher intake of medicine

was associated with an increase in fractures and thus with more serious consequences of

falls which jeopardize these patients’ safety. Although freedom-restricting actions cannot

eliminate falls totally, our results support the hypothesis that they might be protective when

used selectively together with fewer sedatives, especially benzodiazepines.”124

Warnings and Studies on Specific Anti-anxiety Drugs:

Champix (varenicline in the UK):

December 14, 2007: The British Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency

in conjunction with the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) published a warning that

stated: “Doctors are already aware of the risk of using Champix [a benzodiazepine-based

drug, promoted for smoking cessation] in patients who have an underlying mental illness.

They also need to be aware of the possibility that patients who are trying to stop smoking

can develop symptoms of depression, and they should advise their patients accordingly.

Patients who are taking Champix and develop suicidal thoughts should stop their treatment

and contact their doctor immediately.”125

Chantix (varenicline in the U.S.):

November 20, 2007: The FDA issued “Early Communication About an Ongoing Safety

Review Varenicline (marketed as Chantix, a benzodiazepine based drug, promoted for

smoking cessation).” The FDA warned that drug companies had reported incidents of

suicidal thoughts, aggressive and erratic behavior, and drowsiness in patients who had

taken Chantix.126

February 1, 2008: The FDA warned that serious neuropsychiatric symptoms had occurred

in patients taking Chantix. The drug can cause changes in behavior, agitation, depressed

mood, suicidal ideation, and attempted and completed suicide.127

ROHYPNOL (flunitrazepam):

Note: The U.S. has not approved Rohypnol for medical use. It is legally sold in Latin

America and Europe for insomnia and is smuggled into the U.S. from Mexico and South


A 2000 Swedish study of 47 juvenile delinquents found that 40% were acute abusers of

a minor tranquilizer, Rohypnol—known as the “fear reducer” and “date rape” drug—that

enabled them to commit extremely violent crimes. Abusers showed no guilt about their

violent offenses: “When I stabbed him, it felt like putting a knife into butter,” states the

report. “I didn’t feel any emotion when I stabbed him five times,” a teenager reported.128

It is also known as a “club drug,” a general term for a number of illicit drugs, primarily

synthetic, that are most commonly encountered at nightclubs and “raves.” The drugs have

gained popularity primarily due to the false perception that they are not as harmful, nor as

addictive, as mainstream drugs such as cocaine and heroin. The drug chemically induces

amnesia and often causes decreased blood pressure, drowsiness, visual disturbances,

dizziness, confusion, gastrointestinal disturbances, and urinary retention.129

Stilnox (AMBIEN, zolpidem):

Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic prescribed often for insomnia. It includes

Adormix, Ambien, Edluar, Damixan, Hyprogen, Invelald, Lioran, Nytamel, Sanval,

Stilnoct, Stilnox, Sucedeal, Zoldem, Zolnod and Zolphihexal.

February 21, 2008: The Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) imposed a

boxed warning in the product information for medicines containing zolpidem (Stilnox). The

boxed warning stated: “Zolpidem may be associated with potentially dangerous complex

sleep-related behaviors which may include sleep walking, sleep driving and other bizarre

behaviors. Zolpidem is not to be taken with alcohol. Caution is needed with other CNS

[Central Nervous System] depressant drugs. Limit use to four weeks maximum under close

medical supervision.” The TGA said it would carry warnings of possible side effects,

“including rage reactions, worsening insomnia, confusion, agitation, hallucinations and

other forms of unwanted behavior.”130

May 7, 2008: The FDA approved safety labeling revisions to advise of the risks for

abnormal thinking and behavioral changes in patients taking zolpidem and other sedativehypnotic

drugs. Use of sedative-hypnotics in primarily depressed patients has been

linked to worsening depression, including suicidal thoughts and actions and completed

suicide. Behavioral changes include “sleep-driving.” The FDA also warned that rare cases

of angioedema (allergic skin disease) have been reported in patients taking the first or

subsequent doses of sedative-hypnotics. Symptoms can include throat closing, or nausea

and vomiting requiring emergency care. Because airway obstruction can cause death, patients in whom angioedema develops after taking zolpidem should not be “rechallenged

with the drug.”131

XANAX (alprazolam):

December 1990: Dr. John Steinberg, medical director of the Chemical Dependency

Program at the Greater Baltimore Medical Center and president of the Maryland Society of

Addiction Medicine, confirmed that patients taking one Xanax tablet each day for several

weeks could become addicted. Further, after a patient stops taking Xanax, it takes the brain

six to eighteen months to recover. Xanax patients should be warned, he said, that it could

take a long time to get over painful withdrawal symptoms.132

1984: A study of Xanax, “Extreme anger and hostile behavior emerged from eight of the

first 80 patients we treated with alprazolam [Xanax]. The responses consisted of physical

assaults by two patients, behavior potentially dangerous to others by two more, and verbal

outbursts by the remaining four.” The study reported that a woman who had no history of

violence before taking Xanax “erupted with screams on the fourth day of taking alprazolam

treatment, and held a steak knife to her mother’s throat for a few minutes.”133

1985: Another study found that more than half of the Xanax study group experienced

“dyscontrol,” meaning violence or loss of control of aggressive behavior. The violence

included “deep neck cuts…wrist cuts…tried to break own arm…threw chair at child…arm

and head banging…jumped in front of a car.”134

2001: Drug experts said Xanax is more addictive than most illegal drugs, including cocaine

or heroin, and once someone is hooked, getting off it can be a tortuous and even deadly


July 2005: The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University

issued a report called “Under the Counter: The Diversion and Abuse of C ontrolled

Prescription Drugs in the U.S.” stating that 15 million Americans were getting high on

prescription drugs, painkillers and psychiatric drugs such as Xanax and the stimulants

Ritalin and Adderall. They were abusing these drugs more than cocaine, heroin and

methamphetamines combined. Teens who abused prescription drugs were 12 times likelier

to use heroin, 14 times likelier to use Ecstasy and 21 times likelier to use cocaine, compared to teens that do not abuse such drugs. 136


1 Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com; “Adderall,” DrugStore.com, Internet URL: http://www.drugstore.com;

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2 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R), American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C., 1987, p. 136.

3 “Drug Scheduling,” U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration Online, Internet URL: http://www.dea.gov.

4 Raul R. Gainetdinov; William C. Wetsel; Edward D. Sara; R. Levin Jones; Mohamed Jaber; Marc G. Caron, “Role of Serotonin in the

Paradoxical Calming Effect of Psychostimulants on Hyperactivity,” Science, 15 Jan. 1999.

5 “Statement on Concerta and Methylphenidate,” Statement posted on the FDA website, 28 June 2005.

6 Marian S. MacDonagh, PharmaD, and Kim Peterson, MS, “Drug Class Review on Pharmacologic Treatment for ADHD: Final

Report,” Oregon Health and Science University, Sept. 2005, pp. 13-20.

7 “FDA will study safety of attention-deficit drugs,” Kansas City Star, 5 Jan. 2006.

8 “Stimulants in children with ADHD may have negative CV effect,” Mental Health Law Weekly, 4 Feb. 2006.

9 Ricardo Alonso-Zaldivar, “Warning Urged for ADHD Drugs,” Los Angeles Times, 10 Feb. 2006.

10 Todd Zwillich, “FDA Panel Recommends Warnings of Rare Reports of Aggressive Behavior or Psychotic Symptoms,” WebMD, 23

Mar. 2006.

11 “Dark side of a wonder drug,” The Australian, 28 Mar. 2006.

12 Almut G. Winterstein, et al., “Cardiac Safety of Central Nervous System Stimulants in Children and Adolescents With Attention-

Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” Pediatrics, Vol. 120, Dec. 2007, pp. e1494-e1501.

13 W. Goldman, et al., “Association between treatment with central nervous system stimulants and Raynaud’s Syndrome in children: a

study of rheumatology patients,” Arthritis & Rheumatism, Vol. 58, No. l, 2 Feb. 2008, pp. 563-566.

14 Brian Vastig, “Pay Attention: Ritalin Acts Much Like Cocaine,” JAMA, 22/29 Aug. 2001, Vol. 286, No. 8, p. 905.

15 Joel Turtel, Public Schools, Public Menace: How Public Schools Lie to Parents and Betray Our Children, (Library Books, New

York), 2004-2005, p. 135.

16 “Partnership Attitude Tracking Study” of teens in 2004, 17th Annual report by Partnership for a Drug-Free America, 21 Apr. 2005;

“Survey: 1 in 5 teens getting high on medications, over-counter drugs,” NewsItem.com, 2 May 2005.

17 Larry A. Kroutil, et al., “Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants in the United States,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Feb. 2006.

18 Brian Witte, “Slaying blamed on reaction to hyperactivity drug,” Associated Press, 25 Oct. 1999.

19 “J & J Psychiatric Safety Labeling, Cardiovascular Events Are Topic For Cmte,” FDAAdvisoryCommittee.com, June 2005.

20 “Health Canada Suspends Marketing of Adderall,” FDA Alert, 9 Feb. 2005.

21 “Health Canada allows Adderall XR® back on the Canadian market,” Health Canada News Release, 24 Aug. 2005.

22 Partnership Attitude Tracking Study, Teens – 2004, Partnership for a Drug-Free America, 21 Apr. 2005, p. 7; “Cylert recall

demanded over safety concerns,” Lifestyle News, www.mynippon.com/news/2005/03/cylert-recall-demanded-over-safety-concerns.

23 “Injured by Cylert?” Parker Waichman Alonso, LLP, http://www.yourlawyer.com/topics/overview/cylert.

24 “FDA Withdraws Approval for ADD Drug,” Associated Press, 24 Oct. 2005.

25 “Updated Safety Information: Warnings regarding serious rash, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and hypersensitivity reactions,

and psychiatric symptoms,” Cephalon, Inc., Sept. 2007.

26 Op. cit., DSM-III-R, pp. 136, 175.; Medical Economics Company, Physicians Desk Reference (Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics

Co, 1998), pp. 1,897.

27 “Methylphenidate (A Background Paper),” U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, Oct. 1995, p. 16.

28 “Antidepressant Ritalin to be delisted because of abuse,” Daily Yomiuri Online, 19 Oct. 2007.

29 Ritalin Drug Label, fda.gov.

30 Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com; Joseph Glenmullen, M.D. Prozac Backlash, (Simon & Schuster, New York,

2000), p. 8; “Antidepressants Lift Clouds, But Lost ‘Miracle Drug’ Label,” The New York Times, 30 June 2002; Alice Park, “More

Drugs To Treat Hyperactivity,” TIME Magazine, 10 Sept. 2001; Wellbutrin/Bupropion, Prozac Truth website; “Teen Suffers Seizure

After Snorting Antidepressant,” HealthScoutNews Reporter, 23 Apr. 2003.

31 Dr. Candace B. Pert, Letter to the Editor, TIME Magazine, 20 Oct. 1997, p. 8.

32 “Worsening Depression and Suicidality in Patients Being Treated with Antidepressant Medication,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 22

Mar. 2004.

33 Gardiner Harris, “Antidepressant Study Seen to Back Expert,” The New York Times, 20 Aug. 2004.

34 “Antidepressant aggression concern,” BBC News Online, 21 Sept. 2004.

35 “Suicidality in Children and Adolescents Being Treated With Antidepressant Medications,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 15 Oct. 2004.

36 “New advice on prescribing anti-depressants,” New Zealand Ministry of Health Media Release, 21 Oct. 2004.

37 “Use of SSRI antidepressants in children and adolescents,” Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 6, Dec. 2004.

38 “European Medicines Agency finalises review of antidepressants in children and adolescents,” European Medicines Agency Press

Release, 25 Apr. 2005.

39 Sarah Boseley, “Suicide fear from antidepressants,” The Guardian (London), 18 Feb. 2005.

40 Joanna Moncrieff and Irving Kirsch, “Efficacy of Antidepressants in Adults,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 331, 16 July 2005, pp.

155-157; Salynn Boyles, “Battle Brews Over Antidepressant Use,” Fox News, 15 Jul. 2005.

41 “Suicidality with SSRIs: adults and children,” Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Bulletin, Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 2005.

42 “Annex II,” Commission Decision of 19-VIII-2005, Commission of the European Communities, 19 Aug. 2005.

43 Ivar Aursnes, et al., “Suicide Attempts in Clinical Trials with Paroxetine Randomised Against Placebo,” BMC Medicine, Vol. 3, pp.


44 Sheryl Ubelacker, “SSRI antidepressants may raise suicide risk in elderly patients: study,” Sympatico, 1 May 2006.

45 “Antidepressants should list new risks: FDA,” Reuters, 19 July 2006; “Combined Use of 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor Agonists (Triptans), Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) or Selective Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) May

Result in Life-threatening Serotonin Syndrome,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 19 July 2006.

46 “FDA Proposes New Warnings About Suicidal Thinking, Behavior in Young Adults Who Take Antidepressants,” FDA News, 2 May 2007.

47 “Antidepressants and suicidal thoughts and behaviour,” Pharmacovigilance Working Party, Jan. 2008.

48 Yan Chen, et al., “Risk of Cerebrovascular Events [CVE] Associated with Antidepressant Use in Patients with Depression: A

Population-Bases, Nested Case-Control Study,” The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 177-184, 22 Jan. 2008.

49 “Implementation of warnings on suicidal thoughts and behaviour in antidepressants,” MHRA, 5 February 2008.

50 Irving Kirsch, et al., “Initial Severity and Antidepressant Benefits: A Meta-Analysis of Data Submitted to the Food and Drug

Administration,” Public Library of Science, Vol. 5, Iss. 2, 26 Feb. 2008.

51 “Antidepressant drug use and risk of venous thromboembolism,” Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 28, No. 2, 28 Feb. 2008.

52 Thomas Laughren, M.D., Letter to GlaxoSmithKline Attn: Randal L. Batenhorst, Food and Drug Administration, Jan. 2009.

53 Benedict Carey, “Treatment of Depression in Pregnancy Affects Babies,” The New York Times, 4 Feb. 2005.

54 “General information concerning use of SSRI antidepressants in pregnant women,” Therapeutic Goods Administration, 7 Sept. 2005.

55 “Paroxetine HCL – Paxil and generic paroxetine,” 2005 Safety Alerts for Drugs, Biologics, Medical Devices, and Dietary

Supplements, FDA MedWatch, 27 Sept. 2005.

56 Steve Mitchell, “Analysis: SSRIs’ risk to infants,” United Press International, 6 Feb. 2006.

57 “Advisory – Newer antidepressants linked to serious lung disorder in newborns,” Health Canada press release, 10 Mar. 2006.

58 Maria Bishop, “Use of Antidepressants in Pregnancy Affects Neonatal Outcomes: Presented at AACAP,” Doctor’s Guide, 29 Oct.


59 “Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft and Other SSRI Antidepressants Tied to Premature Birth,” News Inferno, 6 May 2008.

60 “Duloxetine hydrochloride (marketed as Cymbalta) information,” FDA information sheet, 30 June 2005.

61 “Cymbalta (duloxetine hydrochloride),” 2005 Safety Alerts for Drugs, Biologics, Medical Devices, and Dietary Supplements, FDA

MedWatch, 17 Oct. 2005.

62 “NDA # 21-733. CYMBALTA® (duloxetine hydrochloride) Delayed-release Capsules. MACMIS # 14550,” FDA, 2 Oct. 2007.

63 “Paroxetine,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 8 Dec. 2005.

64 Benedict Carey and Gardiner Harris, “Antidepressant May Raise Suicide Risk,” The New York Times, 12 May 2006.

65 Corrado Barbui, M.D., et al., “Effectiveness of paroxetine in the treatment of acute major depression in adults: a systematic reexamination

of published and unpublished data from randomized trials,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, Vol. 178, No. 3, 29

Jan. 2008.

66 “New Warning for Strattera,” FDA Talk Paper, 17 Dec. 2004.

67 “Attention Drug to Get New Warning,” Los Angeles Times, 18 Dec. 2004.

68 “Strattera to Get New Risk Label,” The Washington Post, 18 Dec. 2004.

69 “New Drugs in Pipeline,” Psychiatric News, 21 Dec. 2001.

70 “Lilly to add suicide warning to Strattera,” ABC News, 29 Sept. 2005.

71 “Atomoxetine and suicidal behavior: update,” Canadian Adverse Reaction Newsletter, Vol. 18, Iss. 3, July 2008.

72 “Atomoxetine: risk of psychotic or manic symptoms,” Drug Safety Update, MHRA, Vol. 2, Iss. 8, March 2009.

73 “Teen Suffers Seizure After Snorting Antidepressant,” HealthScoutNews Reporter, 23 Apr., 2003.

74 Op. cit., Prozac Truth website.

75 Alice Park, “More Drugs To Treat Hyperactivity,” TIME Magazine, 10 Sept. 2001.

76 Op. cit., Prozac Truth website.

77HealthScoutNews Reporter.

78 Op. cit. Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com.

79 “Suicidality in Children and Adolescents Being Treated With Antidepressant Medications,” FDA Public Health Advisory, 15 Oct.


80 Op cit.New Zealand Ministry of Health.

81 Italian Official Gazette, No. 224, 26 Sept. 2005.

82 “Depression in Children and Young People,” National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Sept. 2005, pp. 16, 18 and 28.

83 FDA, “Antidepressant Use in Children, Adolescents, and Adults,” www.fda.gov/CDER/Drug/antidepressants?default.html, updated

2 May 2007.

84 Op. Cit.Maria Bishop.

85 “Antidepressant drug use and risk of venous thromboembolism,” Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 28, No. 2, 28 Feb. 2008.

86 Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com; “ABILIFY Rx Only (aripiprazole) Tablets,” Package Insert, revised Mar.

2004; “GENERIC NAME: Aripiprazole BRAND NAME: Abilify,” Internet URL: http://www.MedicineNet.com, Last Editorial

Review: 9/8/04; “Aripiprazole Brand Name: Abilify,” Internet URL: http://www.HealthyPlace.com, Ty C. Colbert, Rape of the Soul,

How the Chemical Imbalance Model of Modern Psychiatry has Failed its Patients, (Kevco Publishing, California, 2001), p. 106.

87 Robert Whitaker, Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill, (Perseus

Publishing, New York, 2002), pp. 182, 186.

88 Op. cit., Robert Whitaker, p. 208.

89 George Crane, “Tardive Dyskinesia in Patients Treated with Major Neuroleptics: A Review of the Literature,” American Journal of

Psychiatry, Vol. 124, Supplement, 1968, pp. 40-47.

90 Michael J. Burns, “The Pharmacology and Toxicology of Atypical Antipsychotic Agents,” Journal of Toxicology, 1 Jan. 2001.

91 Ibid.

92 “FDA: Antipsychotic Drugs, Diabetes Linked,” Associated Press Online, 18 Sept. 2003.

93 “Atypical antipsychotics and hyperglycaemia,” Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 3, June 2004.

94 Jeffrey A. Lieberman, M.D., et al., “Effectiveness of Antipsychotic Drugs in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 353, No. 12, 22 Sept. 2005.

95 Philip S. Wang, et al., “Risk of Death in Elderly Users of Conventional vs. Atypical Antipsychotic Medication,” The New England

Journal of Medicine, Vol. 353, No. 22, 1 Dec. 2005.

96 Marilyn Elias, “New antipsychotic drugs carry risks for children; Side effects can lead to bigger health problems,” USA Today, 2

May 2006.

97 Peter Tyrer, et al., “Risperidone, haloperidol, and placebo in the treatment of aggressive challenging behaviour in patients with

intellectual disability: a randomized controlled trial,” The Lancet, Vol. 371, 5 Jan. 2008.

98 Wilma Knol, M.D., et al., “Antipsychotic Drug Use and Risk of Pneumonia in Elderly People,” The American Geriatrics Society, Vol.

56, No. 4, pp. 661-666, Apr. 2008.80

99 Hugo Lovheim, M.D., Stig Karlsoon, R.N., Ph.D., et al., “The use of central nervous system drugs and analgesics among very old

people with and without dementia,” Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 9 Apr. 2008.

100 Paula A. Rochon, M.D., MPH, FRCPC, et al., “Antipsychotic Therapy and Short-term Serious Events in Older Adults With

Dementia,” The Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 168, No. 10, 26 May 2008.

101 “Information for Healthcare Professionals Antipsychotics,” FDA, June 2008; “US FDA expands antipsychotic drug warning,”

Reuters UK, 17 June 2008.

102 “Update on the safety of antipsychotic medicines – risk of stroke and increased risk of mortality in elderly patients treated for

dementia,” Drug Safety Newsletter, Iss. 30, Apr. 2009, p. 5.

103 MedicineNet.com, Last Editorial Review: 9/8/04.

104 “Abilify Information,” Pharma-Help.com.

105 “The New Anti-Psychotic Drug Aripiprazole (ABILIFY),” Public Citizen’s eLetter, Apr. 2003.

106 Op. cit., “ABILIFY Rx Only (aripiprazole) Tablets,”

107 “Clozapine and Achy Breaky Hearts,” MedSafe, May 2008.

108 Watching Briefs, MedSafe, June 2008.

109 “Information for Healthcare Professionals Haloperidol (marketed as Haldol, Haldol Decanoate and Haldol Lactate),” FDA ALERT,

17 Sept. 2007.

110 Jeff Swiatek, “Uncertainty was Driver in Zyprexa Deal,” IndianapolisStar.com, 11 June 2005.

111 Op. cit., Jeffrey A. Lieberman, M.D., et al.

112 “Study: New drugs little better for schizophrenia,” St. Petersburg Times, 20 Sept. 2005.

113 “Important Safety Information about ZYPREXA® (olanzapine),” Eli Lilly and Company, 5 Oct. 2007; “Lilly Announces Updates

to the Zyprexa and Symbyax U.S. Labels,” PRNewswire, Bio-Medicine, 5 Oct. 2007.

114 ZYPREXA Safety Information, www.zyprexa.com.

115 Physicians’ Desk Reference, http://www.pdrhealth.com.

116 Tracey McVeigh, “Tranquilizers ‘more lethal than heroin,’” The Observer, 5 Nov. 2000.

117 Matt Clark, Mary Hager, “Valium Abuse: The Yellow Peril,” Newsweek, 24 Sept. 1979; Dr. Patrick Holford, “How to Quit

Tranquilizers,” www.patrickholdford.com, 2008.

118 Ibid.

119 Op. cit., Tracey McVeigh.

120 “Elderly On Long-Acting Anxiety, Insomnia Drugs Have More Car Crashes,” Doctor’s Guide citing Journal of American Medical

Association, 30 June 1997.

121 “Agression, Violence & Bezodiazapines,” Benzo.org.uk, citing British National Formulary, 2001.

122 Benzo.org.uk, citing Professor C. Heather Ashton, Benzodiazepines: How They Work and How To Withdraw, Feb. 2001.

123 “The Influence on the Pharmaceutical Industry,” House of Commons, UK, Health Committee, Vol. 1, Mar. 2005. p. 65.

124 Tarja-Brita R. Wahlin, et al., “Falls and fall risk among nursing home residents,” The Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 17, pp. 126-

134, Jan. 2008.

125 “Europe-wide review recommends updates to product information for varenicline (brand name Champix),” MHRA, 14 Dec. 2008.

126 “Early Communication About an Ongoing Safety Review Varenicline (marketed as Chantix),” FDA, 20 Nov. 2007.

127 “Varenicline (marketed as Chantix) Information,” FDA Alert, 1 Feb. 2008.

128 Op. cit., House of Commons, UK, Health Committee, p. 65.

129 Anna Maria Dademan, “Flunitrazepam and violence—psychiatric and legal issues,” Department of Clinical Neuroscience,

Occupational Therapy and Elderly Care, Research Division of Forensic Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Sweden, 2000, p. 43.

130 “Zolpidem (‘Stilnox’) – Updated information – February 2008,” Theraputic Goods Administration, 21 Feb. 2008; “Club Drugs: An

Update,” Drug Intelligence Brief, Drug Enforcement Administration, Sept. 2001.

131 “FDA Safety Changes: Ambien, Primazin IM/IV, Hepsera,” Medscape, 28 Aug. 2008.

132 Peter Breggin, Toxic Psychiatry, (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1991) p. 245.

133 Jerrold F. Rosenbaum, et al., “Emergence of Hostility During Alprazolam Treatment in Borderline Personality Disorder,” The

American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 141, No. 6 (June 1984), pp. 792-793.

134 David L. Gardner and Rex W. Cowdrey, “Alprazolam-Induced Dyscontrol in Borderline Personality Disorder,” The American

Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 142, No. 1 (Jan. 1985), pp. 98-100.

135 “Xanax addiction extremely tough to kick,” MSNBC News Online, 2001.

136 Statement by Joseph A. Califano, Jr., Chairman and President, “Under the Counter: The Diversion and Abuse of Controlled

Prescription Drugs in the U.S.” The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, July 2005.

137 Physicians’ Desk Reference, (Medical Economics Company, New Jersey, 1998), pp. 2822-2823; David L. Richman, M.D., Leonard

Roy Frank, and Art Mandler, Dr. Caligari’s Psychiatric Drugs (Alonzo Printing Co., Inc., California, 1984), p. 39.

138 Op. cit., David L. Richman, M.D., et al., pp. 38-39.

139 Ibid.

Source: http://www.cchrint.org/pdfs/The_Side_Effects_of_Common_Psychiatric_Drugs.pdf

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